Puede consultar nuestra página de ayuda para mayor información acerca de estas herramientas.



Betalactamasas de Espectro Extendido (BLEE)





1. Pitout JDD; Sanders CC; Sanders WE. 1997. Antimicrobial resistance with focus on ß-lactam resistance in Gram-negative Bacilli. Am. J. Med. 103: 51-59.
2. Livermore DM. 1995. Betalactamases in laboratory and clinical resistance. Clin Microbiol Rev; 8:557-584.
3. Steward CD; Rashed K; Hubert S; Biddle J; Rney P; Anderson G; Williams P; Brittian K; Oliver A; McGowan J; Tenocer F. 2001. Characterization of Clinical Isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae From 19 Laboratories Using the National Committe for Clinical Laboratory Standars Extended Spectrum ß-lactamase Detection Methods. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39(8):2864-2872
4. Bradford P. Automated Thermal Cycling Is Superior to Traditional Methods for Nucleotide Sequencing of blaSHV Genes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1999
5. Bush K; Jacoby GA; Medeiros AA. 1995. A Functional Classification Scheme for ß-lactamases and Its Correlation with Molecular Structure. Ant. Agents Chemother.19(6):1211-12335.
6. Pfaller MA; Acar J; Jones RN; Verhoef J; Turnidge J; Sader HS. 2001. Integration of Molecular Characterization of Microorganisms in a Global Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance Program. CID 32(Suppl 2):S156-S177
7. Yao J. and Mollering R. Antibacterial Agents pag. 1065 in: Blows A., Hausler W. and Hermann K. Manual of Clinical Microbiology. 5a ed. American Society for Microbiology Washington D.C. 1991. pag. 1364.106
8. Chambers H. Penicilins. Pag. 261 in: Mandell G., Bennett J. and Dolin R. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 5a ed. Vol. 1. Ed. Churchill Livingstone. 2000. pag. 1534.
9. Bush K; Jacoby GA; Medeiros AA. 1995. A Functional Classification Scheme for ß-lactamases and Its Correlation with Molecular Structure. Ant. Agents Chemother.19(6):1211-12335.
10. Bush K, Sykes RB. 1986Methodology for the study of ß-lactamases. Antimicrob AgentsChemother;30:6-10.
11. Medeiros A. 1997. Evolution and dissemination of ß-lactamases accelerated by generations of ß-lactam antibiotics. Clin Infect Dis;24:S19.
12. Abraham EP, Chain E. An enzyme from bacteria able to destroy penicillin. Nature1940;146:837
13. Medeiros AA, Jacoby GA. 1986. ß-lactamase-mediated resistance. In: Queener SF, Webber JA, Queener SW, editors. Betalactam antibiotics for clinical use. New york: Marcel Dekker Inc;. p. 49-84.
14. Mehta RJ, Nash CH. 1978.ß-lactamase activity in yeast. Jpn J Antibiot;31:239-40.
15. Knothe H, Shah P, Krcmery V, Antal M, Mitsuhashi S. 1983.Transferable resistance tocefotaxime, cefoxitin, cefamandole and cefuroxime in clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Serratia marcescens. Infection;11(6):315-7.
16. Kliebe C, Nies BA, Meyer JF, Tolxdorff Neutzling RM, Wiedemann B. 1985. Evolution of plasmid-coded resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins. Antimicrob AgentsChemother;28(2):302-7.
17. Nordmann P. Trends in ß-lactam resistance among Enterobacteriaceae. Clin Infect Dis1998;27 Suppl 1:S100-6.
18. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Approved standard M100-S10: performace standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Wayne, PA: NCCLS2000
19. Cormican M., Marshall S. and Jones R. 1996. Detection of Extended-Spectrum ß-Lactamase (ESBL)-Producing Strains by the Etest ESBL Screen. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34: 1880-1884.
20. Walker JM. 1994. Methods in Molecular Biology. Vol 32: Basic Protein and Peptide Protocols. Humana Press Inc., Totowa, NJ.59-65.
21. Matthew M; Harris AM; Marshall H; Ross GW. 1975. The Use of Analytic Isoelectric Focusing for Detection and Identification of ß-Lactamases. J. Gen. Microbiol. 88:169-178.
22. Silva J, Aguilar C. ß-lactamase Bioassay: A Simplified Meted to Determine Extended-Spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBL) in Enterobacteria. Arch Med Rese.1997. 28: 285-287.
23. Mabilat, C., and P. Courvalin. 1990. Development of "oligotyping" for characterization and molecular epidemiology of TEM -lactamases in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34:2210-2216
24. Arlet, G., G. Brami, D. Dècrère, A. Flippo, O. Galtolot, P. H. Lagrange, and A. Philippon. 1995. Molecular characterization by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of TEM -lactamases. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 134:1498-1500.
25. Chanawong, A., F. H. M'Zali, J. Heritage, A. Lulitanond, and P. M. Hawkey. 2000. Characterization of extended-spectrum -lactamases of the SHV family using a combination of PCR-single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 184:85-89
26. Perilli, M., A. Felici, N. Franceschini, A. D. Santis, L. Pagani, F. Luzzaro, A. Oratore, G. M. Rossolini, J. R. Knox, and G. Amicosante. 1997. Characterization of a new TEM-derived -lactamase produced in a Serratia marcescens strain. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:2374-2382
27. M'Zali, F.-H., D. M. Gascoyne-Binzi, J. Heritage, and P. M. Hawkey. 1996. Detection of mutations conferring extended-spectrum activity on SHV -lactamases using polymerase chain reaction single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP). J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 37:797-802
28. Bush K. 1996. Is it important to identify extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing isolates. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis;15:361-4.
29. Bradford P. 2001. Extended-Spectrum ß-Lactamases in the 21st Century: Characterization, Epidemiology and Detection of This Important Resistance Threat. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 14: 933-951.
30. Tzouvelekis L.S. , Tzelepi E. b, Tassios P.T. a, Legakis N.J.2000. CTX-M-type ß-lactamases: an emerging group of extended-spectrum enzymes. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 14:137-142.
31. Blázquez, J., Baquero, M.R., Cantón, R., Alós, R., Baquero, F. 1993. Characterization of a new TEM-type ß-lactamase resistant to clavulanate, sulbactam, and tazobactam in a clinical isolate of Escherichia coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother; 37: 2059-2063.
32. Bonnet R. Growing Group of Extended-Spectrum ß-Lactamases: the CTX-M Enzymes. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:1-14.
33. Palzkill T. Botstein D. 1992. Identification of amino acid substitutions that alter the substrate specificity of TEM-1 ß-lactamase. J Bacteriol; 174: 5237-5243.
34. Venkatachalam KV, Huang, LaRocco W M, and Palzkill T. 1994. Characterization of TEM-1 beta-lactamase mutants from positions 238 to 241 with increased catalytic efficiency for ceftazidime. J Biol Chem; 269: 23444-23450.
35. Blázquez, J., Morosini, M.I., Negri, M.C., González-Leiza, M., Baquero.1995. Single amino acid replacements at positions altered in naturally occurring extended-spectrum TEM beta-lactamases. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 39: 145-149.
36. Knox, J. 1995 Extended-spectrum and inhibitor-resistant TEM-type beta-lactamases: mutations, specificity, and three-dimensional structure. J. Antimicrob Agents Chemother .39: 2593-2601.
37. Chaïbi, E.B., Farzaneh, S., Péduzzi, J., Barthélémy, M., Labia, R. 1996.An additional ionic bond suggested by molecular modelling of TEM-2 might induce a slight discrepancy between catalytic properties of TEM-1 and TEM-2 -lactamases. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 143: 121-125
38. Hujer A.M., Hujer K.M. , Bonomo R. 2001. Mutagenesis of amino acid residues in the SHV-1 L-lactamase: the premier role of Gly238Ser in penicillin and cephalosporin resistance. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1547 37-50.
39. Neuwirth K. 2001.TEM-89 Beta-Lactamase Produced by a Proteus mirabilis Clinical Isolate: New Complex Mutant (CMT 3) with Mutations in both TEM-59 (IRT-17) and TEM-3. J. Antimicrob Agents Chemother .39: 2593-2601.
40. Van Cao,. Lambert T., Quynh Nhu D,. Kim Loan H., Arlet G, Courvalin1P. 2002. Distribution of Extended-Spectrum ß-Lactamases in Clinical Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae in Vietnam. J. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:3739-3743.
41. Frédéric Bert*, Catherine Branger and Nicole Lambert-Zechovsky. (2002) Identification of PSE and OXA ß-lactamase genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa using PCR–restriction fragment length polymorphism. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 50, 11–18.
42. Dutour C., Bonnet R., Marchandin H., Boyer M., Chanal C., Sirot D., Sirot J. 2002. CTX-M-1, CTX-M-3, and CTX-M-14 ß-Lactamases from Enterobacteriaceae Isolated in France. J. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:534-537.
43. Yagi T., Kurokawa H,4 Senda K, Ichiyama Satoshi, Ito H, Ohsuka Si, Shibayama K, Shimokata K.1997. Nosocomial Spread of Cephem-Resistant Escherichia coli Strains Carrying Multiple Toho-1-Like b-Lactamase Genes. J. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 41:2606-2611.
44. Chanawong A., Hannachi F., M’Zali, Heritage J., Xiong J., and Hawkey P. 2002. Three Cefotaximases, CTX-M-9, CTX-M-13, and CTX-M-14, among Enterobacteriaceae in the People’s Republic of China. J. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:630-637.
45. Villegas M., Correa A., Perez F., Zuluaga T., Radice M., Gutkind G., Casellas J., Ayala J., Lolans K., Quinn J.2004. CTX-M-12 ß-Lactamase in a Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Isolate in Colombia. J. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 48:629-631.
46. Ait Mhand R., Soukri A., Moustaoui N. 2002. Plasmid-mediated TEM-3 Extended spectrum Betalactamase in Salmonella typhimurium in Casablanca. Jour. Anti. Chemo. 49:169-172.
47. Coque M., Oliver A., Pérez-Díaz J., Baquero F., Cantón R. 2002. Genes Encoding TEM-4, SHV-2, and CTX-M-10 Extended-Spectrum BetaLactamases Are Carried by Multiple Klebsiella pneumoniaeClones in a Single Hospital (Madrid, 1989 to 2000). Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 46: 500-510.
48. Sotto A., Foulongne V. Sirot D., Jourdan J. 1999. A method using TEM-5 ß-lactamase to assay imipenem. Journal. Antim. Chemoter. 44:847-855.
49. Peixe L., Baquero F. 1997. A blaTEM-1b-Derived TEM-6 b-Lactamase: a Case of Convergent Evolution. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41: 1206.
50. Scanvic A., Soilleux M., Chaibi E., Labia R., Scavizzi M. 1997. TEM 8 : a paradoxical ceftazidimaze that owes its uniqueness to presence of Serine residues at position 164 and 238. J. Antimicrob Chemoter. 40:303-309.
51. Barroso H., Freitas-Vieira A., Lito L., Cristino J., Salgado M., Ferreira H., Sousa J., Soveral G. 2000. Survey of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended spectrum ß-lactamases at a Portuguese hospital: TEM-10 as the endemic enzyme. . J. Antimicrob Chemoter. 45:611-616.
52. Sirot, D. Recule C., Chaibi E. B., Bret L., Croize J., Chanal-Claris C., Labia R., Sirot J. 1997. A Complex Mutant of TEM-1 ß-Lactamase with Mutations Encountered in Both IRT-4 and Extended-Spectrum TEM-15, Produced by an Escherichia coli Clinical Isolate. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 42:1322-1325.
53. Rosenau, A. Cattier B., Gousset N., Harriau P., Philippon A., Quentin R. Capnocytophaga ochracea: Characterization of a Plasmid-Encoded Extended-Spectrum TEM-17 b-Lactamase in the Phylum Flavobacter-Bacteroides. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 44:760-762.
54. Arlet G., Goussard S., Courvalin P., Philippon A. 1999. Sequences of the Genes for the TEM-20, TEM-21, TEM-22, and TEM-29 Extended-Spectrum b-Lactamases. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43: 969-971.
55. Bonnet R., De Champs C., Sirot D., Chanal C., Labia R., Sirot J. 1999. Diversity of TEM Mutants in Proteus mirabilis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 43:2671-2677.
56. Soilleux M., Morand A., Arlet G., Scavizzi M., Labia R. 1996. Survey of Klebsiella pneumoniae Producing Extended-Spectrum b-Lactamases: Prevalence of TEM-3 and First Identification of TEM-26 in France. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 40:1027-1029.
57. Bradford P., Jacobus N.1996. TEM-28 from an Escherichia coli Clinical Isolate Is a Member of the His-164 Family of TEM-1 Extended-Spectrum ß-Lactamases. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40: 260-262.
58. Granier S., Kitzis M., Goldstein F., 2002. First Description of a TEM-30 (IRT-2)-Producing Klebsiella oxytoca Isolate. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 46:1158-1159
59. Farzaneh S., Chaibi E., Peduzzi J., Barthelemy M., Labia R. Blazquez J., Baquero F. 1996. Implication of Ile-69 and Thr-182 Residues in Kinetic Characteristics of IRT-3 (TEM-32) b-Lactamase. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 46:2434-2436.
60. Speldooren V.,Heym B., Labia R.,Nicolas-Chanoine M. 1998. Discriminatory Detection of Inhibitor-Resistant b-Lactamases in Escherichia coli by Single-Strand Conformation Polymorphism-PCR. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 48:879-884.
61. Chaïbi, E.B., Sirot, D.Labia R.1999. Inhibitor resistant-TEM ß-lactamase, phenotypic, genetic and biochemical characteristics. J. Antimicrob Chemoter. 43:447-458.
62. Mugnier P., Dubrous P., Casin I., Arlet G. 1996. A TEM-Derived Extended-Spectrum b-Lactamase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40: 2488-2493.
63. Yang Y., Bhachech N., Bradford P., Jett B.1998. Ceftazidime-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia col iIsolates Producing TEM-10 and TEM-43 b-Lactamases from St. Louis, Missouri. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42:1671-1676.
64. Caniça .M., Barthelemy M., Gilly L., Labia R. 1997. Properties of IRT-14 (TEM-45), a Newly Characterized Mutant of TEM-Type b-Lactamases. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:374-378.
65. Claris C., Sirot D., Bret L. Chatron P., Labia R. 1997. Novel Extended-Spectrum TEM-Type b-Lactamase from and Escherichia coli Isolate Resistant to Ceftazidime and Susceptible to Cephalothin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 41:715-716.
66. Gniadkowski M., Schneider I., Jungwirth R., Hryniewicz W. 1998. Ceftazidime-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Isolates from Three Polish Hospitals: Identification of Three Novel TEM- and SHV-5-Type Extended-Spectrum b-Lactamases. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 42:514-520.
67. Sirot D., Recule C,. Chaibe. B. I, Bret L., Croize J., Chanal-Claris C., Labia R.1997. A Complex Mutant of TEM-1 b-Lactamase with Mutations Encountered in Both IRT-4 and Extended-Spectrum TEM-15, Produced by an Escherichia coli Clinical Isolate.Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 411322-1325.
68. Sirot D., Chaibe. B. I, Bret L.,Chanal-Claris C., Labia R. 1997. Inhibitor-Resistant TEM (IRT) ß-Lactamases with Different Substitutions at Position 244. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 41:2547-2549.
69. Poyart C., Mugnier P., Quesne G., Berche P., Trieou-Cout P. 1998. A Novel Extended-Spectrum TEM-Type b-Lactamase (TEM-52) Associated with Decreased Susceptibility to Moxalactam in Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 42:108-113.
70. Essack Y., Lucinda M., Hall C., Pillay D.,Mcfadyen M. , And Livermore D. 2001. Complexity and Diversity of Klebsiella pneumoniae Strains with Extended-Spectrum ß-Lactamases Isolated in 1994 and 1996 at a Teaching Hospital in Durban, South Africa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 45 :88-95.
71. Neuwirth C.,Labia R., Siebor E., Pechinot A., Madec S., Chaibi E. , And Kazmierczak A. 2000. Characterization of TEM-56, a Novel b-Lactamase Produced by a Klebsiella pneumoniae Clinical Isolate. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 44:453-455.
72. Bermudes H., Jude F., Chaibi E. B., Arpin C., Bebear C., Labia R., And Quentin C. Molecular Characterization of TEM-59 (IRT-17), a Novel Inhibitor-Resistant TEM-Derived ß-Lactamase in a Clinical Isolate of Klebsiella oxytoca. 1999. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 43 :1657-1661.
73. Franceschini N. , Perilli M., Segatore B., Setacci D., Amicosante G. , Mazzariol A.,And Cornaglia G. 1998. Ceftazidime and Aztreonam Resistance in Providencia stuartii: Characterization of a Natural TEM-Derived Extended-Spectrum b-Lactamase, TEM-60. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 42 :1459-1462.
74. Claeys G., De Baere T., Vaneechoutte M. 1998. Caz-hi, an Extended-Spectrum TEM ß-Lactamase (TEM-61), Is Derived from Caz-lo (TEM-11) by In Vivo Selection . Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 42 :3328.
75. Naas T., Zerbib M., Girlich D., Nordmann P. 2003. Integration of a Transposon Tn1-Encoded Inhibitor-Resistant ?-Lactamase Gene, blaTEM-67 from Proteus mirabilis,into the Escherichia coli Chromosome. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 47 :19-26.
76. Fiett J., Palucha A., B. Stankiewicz M.,Przondo H. , Hryniewicz W., Gniadkowski1 M. 2000. A Novel Complex Mutant ß-Lactamase, TEM-68, Identified in a Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolate from an Outbreak of Extended-Spectrum b-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiellae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother.44:1449-1505.
77. Rasheed J., Anderson G., Queenan A., Biddle J.,Oliver A., Jacoby G., Bush K., Tenover F. 2002. TEM-71, a Novel Plasmid-Encoded, Extended-Spectrum ß-Lactamase Produced by a Clinical Isolate of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 46:2000-2003.
78. Perilli M., Segatore B., De Massis M., Riccio M., Bianchi C., Zollo,A. Rossolini G., Amicosante G. 2000. TEM-72, a New Extended-Spectrum ß-Lactamase Detected in Proteus mirabilis and Morganella morganii in Italy. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 44:2537-2539.
79. Leflon-Guibout V., Speldooren V., Heym B., Chanoine N. 2000. Epidemiological Survey of Amoxicillin-Clavulanate Resistance and Corresponding Molecular Mechanisms in Escherichia coli Isolates in France: New Genetic Features of blaTEM Genes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 44:2709-2714.
80. Cao V., Lambert T., Quynh Nhu D., Kim Loan H., Arlet G., Courvalin P. 2002. Distribution of Extended-Spectrum B-Lactamases in Clinical Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae in Vietnam. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 46:3739-3743.
81. Arpin C., Labia R., Dubois V., Noury P., Souquet M., Quentin C. 2002. TEM-80, a Novel Inhibitor-Resistant ß-Lactamase in a Clinical Isolate of Enterobacter cloacae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 46 :1183-1189.
82. Perilli M., Segatore B., De Massis M., FranceschinN. , Bianchi C., Rossolini G., Amicosante G. 2002. Characterization of a New Extended-Spectrum ß-Lactamase (TEM-87) Isolated in Proteus mirabilis during an Italian Survey. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 46:925-928.
83. Pai H., Lee H., Choi E, Kim J., Jacoby G. 2001. Evolution of TEM-Related Extended-Spectrum ß-Lactamases in Korea. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 45: 3651-3653.
84. Neuwirth C., Madec S., Siebor E., Pechinot A., Duez J., Pruneaux M., Fouchereau-Peron M., Kazmierczak A., Labia R. 2001. TEM-89 ?-Lactamase Produced by a Proteus mirabilis Clinical Isolate: New Complex Mutant (CMT 3) with Mutations in both TEM-59 (IRT-17) and TEM-3. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 45:3591-3594.
85. Pai H., Jacoby G. 2001. Sequences of the NPS-1 and TLE-1 ß-Lactamase Genes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 45: 2947-2948.
86. Kurokawa H., Shibata N., Doi Y., Shibayama K., Kamachi K., Yagi T., Arakawa Y. 2003. A New TEM-Derived Extended-Spectrum ß-Lactamase (TEM-91) with an R164C Substitution at the omega-Loop Confers Ceftazidime Resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 47:2981-2983.
87. De Champs C., Monne C., Bonnet R., Sougakoff W., Sirot D., Chanal C., Sirot J. 2001. New TEM Variant (TEM-92) Produced by Proteus mirabilis and Providencia stuartii Isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 45: 1278-1280.
88. Briñas L., Zarazaga M., Saenz Y., Ruiz-Larrea F., Torres C. 2002. ß-Lactamases in Ampicillin-Resistant Escherichia coli Isolates from Foods, Humans, and Healthy Animals. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 46:3156-3163.
89. Morris D., O’Hare C., Glennon M., Maher M., Corbett-Feeney G., Cormican M. 2003. Extended-Spectrum ß-Lactamases in Ireland, Including a Novel Enzyme, TEM-102. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 47:2572-2578.
90. Alonso R., Gerbaud G., Galimand M., Courvalin P. 2002. TEM-103/IRT-28 ß-Lactamase, a New TEM Variant Produced by Escherichia coli BM4511. . Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 46:3627-3629.
91. Mulvey M., Bryce E., Boyd D., Ofner-Agostini M., Christianson S., Simor A., Paton S.2004. Ambler Class A Extended-Spectrum ß-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. in Canadian Hospitals. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 48:1204-1214.
92. VedeG l, Picard B, Paul G, Philippon A, Gilly L, Krishnamoorthy R, Nevot P. 1989. Analysis of the molecular relatedness of four extended spectrum beta- lactamases (SHV-2, SHV-3, SHV-4 and SHV-5) by comparative protein titration curves. J. Antimicrob. Chemother., Jul; 24: 9 - 17.
93. Xiang X., Shannon K., French G. 1997. Mechanism and stability of hyperproduction of the extended-spectrum ß-lactamase SHV-5 in Klebsiella pneumoniae. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 40: 525–532.
94. Heritage J., M`Zali J.Gascoyne-Binzi D., Hawkey P.1999. Evolution and Spread of SHV extended spectrum ß-lactamases in Gram-negative bacterie. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 44:309-318.
95. Bradford P., Urban, C. Jaiswal A., Mariano N., Rasmussen B., Projan S., Rahal J., Bush K. 1995. SHV-7, a Novel Cefotaxime-Hydrolyzing ß-Lactamase, Identified in Escherichia coli Isolates from Hospitalized Nursing Home Patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 39:899-905.
96. Rasheed J., Jay C., Metchock B., Berkowitz F., Weigel L., Crellin J., Steward C., Hill B., Medeiros. A., Tenover F. 1997. Evolution of Extended-Spectrum b-Lactam Resistance (SHV-8) in a Strain of Escherichia coli during Multiple Episodes of Bacteremia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 41:647-653.
97. Prinarakis E., Miriagou V., Tzelepi E., .Gazouli M, Tzouvelekis L.1997. Emergence of an Inhibitor-Resistant b-Lactamase (SHV-10) Derived from an SHV-5 Variant. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 41:838-840.
98. Nüiesch-Inderbinen M., Kayser F., Hachler H. 1997. Survey and Molecular Genetics of SHV ß-Lactamases in Enterobacteriaceae in Switzerland: Two Novel Enzymes, SHV-11 and SHV-12. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 41:943-949.
99. Yuan M., Hall L., Savelkoul P., Vandenbroucke-Grauls C., Livermore D. 2000. SHV-13, a Novel Extended-Spectrum b-Lactamase, in Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates from Patients in an Intensive Care Unit in Amsterdam. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 44:1081-1084.
100. Yuan M., Hall L., Savelkoul P., Vandenbroucke-Grauls C., Livermore D.2000. SHV-13, a Novel Extended-Spectrum b-Lactamase, in Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates from Patients in an Intensive Care Unit in Amsterdam. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 44:1081-1084.
101. Arpin C., Labia R., Andre C., Frigo C., Harrif Z., Quentin C. 2001. SHV-16, a ß-Lactamase with a Pentapeptide Duplication in the Omega Loop. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 45:2480-2485.
102. Rasheed J., Anderson G., Yigit H, Queenan A, Swenson J, Biddle J., Ferraro M., Jacoby G Tenover., F. 2000. Characterization of the Extended-Spectrum ß-Lactamase Reference Strain, Klebsiella pneumoniae K6 (ATCC 700603), Which Produces the Novel Enzyme SHV-18. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 44: 2382-2388.
103. Kurokawa H., Yagi T., Shibata N., Shibayama K., Kamachi K., . Arakawa Y. 2000. A New SHV-Derived Extended-Spectrum ß-Lactamase (SHV-24) That Hydrolyzes Ceftazidime through a Single-Amino-Acid Substitution (D179G) in the omega-Loop. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 44:1725-1727.
104. Chang F., Siu L., Fung C., Huang M., Ho M. 2001. Diversity of SHV and TEM b-Lactamases in Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gene Evolution in Northern Taiwan and Two Novel ß-Lactamases, SHV-25 and SHV-26. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 45:2407-2413.
105. Corkill J., Cuevas L., Gurgel R., Greensill J., Hart A.2001. SHV-27 a novel Cefotaxime-hidrolysing ß-lactamase, identified en Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from Brazilian Hospital. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 47:463-465
106. Chaves, J., M. G. Ladona, C. Segura, A. Coira, R. Reig, and C. Ampurdanés. 2001. SHV-1 ß-lactamase is mainly a chromosomally encoded species-specific enzyme in Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:2856-61.
107. Heritage J, Chambers P., Tyndall C., Buescher E.2003. SHV-34: an extended-spectrum ß-lactamase encoded by an epidemic plasmid. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 42:1015-1017.
108. Poirel L., Heritier C.,Podglajen I., Sougakoff W.,Gutmann L.,Nordmann P. 2003. Emergence in Klebsiella pneumoniae of a Chromosome-Encoded SHV b-Lactamase That Compromises the Efficacy of Imipenem. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 47:755-758.
109. WangH., KelkarS., WuW., Chen M., Quinn J. Clinical Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae Producing Extended-Spectrum ß-Lactamases: Prevalence of CTX-M-3 at a Hospital in China. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 47:790-793
110. Arpin, C., V. Dubois, L. Coulange, C. André, I. Fischer, P. Noury, F. Grobost, J-P. Brochet, J. Jullin, B. Dutilh, G. Larribet, I. Lagrange, and C. Quentin. 2003. Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in community and private health care centers. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:3506-3514, 2003.
111. Yigit H., Queenan A., Rasheed J., Biddle J., Alberti S., Bush K., Tenover F. 2003. Carbapenem-Resistant Strain of Klebsiella oxytoca Harboring Carbapenem-Hydrolyzing ß-Lactamase KPC-2. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 47:3881-3889.
112. Ouellette M, Bissonnette L, Roy PH. 1987. Precise insertion of antibiotic resistance determinants into Tn21-like transposons: nucleotide sequence of the OXA-1 ß-lactamase gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Nov;84(21):7378-82.
113. Mossakowska D, Ali NA, Dale JW. 1989.Oxacillin-hydrolysing ß-lactamases. A comparative analysis at nucleotide and amino acid sequence levels. Eur J Biochem. Mar 15;180(2):309-18.
114. Huovinen P, Huovinen S, Jacoby GA. 1988. Sequence of PSE-2 ß-lactamase. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Jan; 32(1):134-6.
115. Hall LM, Livermore DM, Gur D, Akova M, Akalin HE. 1993. OXA-11, an extended-spectrum variant of OXA-10 (PSE-2) beta-lactamase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Aug; 37(8):1637-44.
116. Danel F, Hall LM, Gur D, Livermore DM. 1995. OXA-14, another extended-spectrum variant of OXA-10 (PSE-2) ß-lactamase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Aug;39(8):1881-4.
117. Danel F, Hall LM, Gur D, Livermore DM. 1997. OXA-15, an extended-spectrum variant of OXA-2 beta-lactamase, isolated from a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Apr; 41(4):785-90.
118. Danel F., Hall L., Gur D., Livermore D. 1998. OXA-16, a Further Extended-Spectrum Variant of OXA-10 -Lactamase, from Two Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. Dec; 42: 3117 - 3122.
119. Danel F., Hall L., Gur D., Livermore D. 1999. OXA-17, a Further Extended-Spectrum Variant of OXA-10 -Lactamase, from Two Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. Jun; 43(6):1362-6.
120. Philippon LN, Naas T, Bouthors AT, Barakett V, Nordmann P. 1997. OXA-18, a class D clavulanic acid-inhibited extended-spectrum ß-lactamase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Oct; 41(10):2188-95.
121. Mugnier P, Casin I, Bouthors AT, Collatz E. 1998. Novel OXA-10-derived extended-spectrum beta-lactamases selected in vivo or in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Dec;42(12):3113-6.
122. Poirel L, Girlich D, Naas T, Nordmann P. 2001. OXA-28, an extended-spectrum variant of OXA-10 ß-lactamase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its plasmid- and integron-located gene. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Feb;45(2):447-53.
123. Aubert D, Poirel L, Chevalier J, Leotard S, Pages JM, Nordmann P. 2001. Oxacillinase-mediated resistance to cefepime and susceptibility to ceftazidime in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Jun;45(6):1615-20.
124. Poirel L, Gerome P, De Champs C, Stephanazzi J, Naas T, Nordmann P. 2002. Integron-located OXA-32 gene cassette encoding an extended-spectrum variant of OXA-2 ß-lactamase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Feb; 46(2):566-9.
125. Aubert D, Poirel L, Ali AB, Goldstein FW, Nordmann P. 2001. OXA-35 is an OXA-10-related ß-lactamase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Antimicrob Chemother. Nov; 48(5):717-21.
126. Toleman MA, Rolston K, Jones RN, Walsh TR. 2003. Molecular and biochemical characterization of OXA-45, an extended-spectrum class 2d' beta-lactamase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Sep; 47(9):2859-63.
127. Bauernfeind A., Stemplinger I., Jungwirth R., Ernst S. Casellas J. M. 1996. Sequences of ß-Lactamase Genes Encoding CTX-M-1 (MEN-1) and CTX-M-2 and Relationship of Their Amino Acid Sequences with Those of Other b-Lactamases. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Sep; 40(2):509-513.
128. Gniadkowski M., Schneider I., Palucha A. , Jungwirth R.,Mikiewicz B., Bauernfeind A.1998. Cefotaxime-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Isolates from a Hospital in Warsaw, Poland: Identification of a New CTX-M-3 Cefotaxime-Hydrolyzing ß-Lactamase That Is Closely Related to the CTX-M-1/MEN-1 Enzyme. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 42 :827-832.
129. Gazouli M, Tzelepi E, Sidorenko SV, Tzouvelekis LS. 1998. Sequence of the gene encoding a plasmid-mediated cefotaxime-hydrolyzing class A ß-lactamase (CTX-M-4): involvement of serine 237 in cephalosporin hydrolysis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. May;42(5):1259-62.
130. Bradford P., Yang Y., Sahm D., Grope I., Gardovska D., Storch G. 1998. CTX-M-5, a Novel Cefotaxime-Hydrolyzing ß-Lactamase from an Outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium in Latvia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Sep; 42 1980-1984.
131. Gazouli M, Tzelepi E, Markogiannakis A, Legakis NJ, Tzouvelekis LS. 1998. Two novel plasmid-mediated cefotaxime-hydrolyzing ß-lactamases (CTX-M-5 and CTX-M-6) from Salmonella typhimurium. FEMS Microbiol Lett. Aug 15;165(2):289-93.
132. Bonnet R, Sampaio JL, Labia R, De Champs C, Sirot D, Chanal C, Sirot J. 2000. A novel CTX-M beta-lactamase (CTX-M-8) in cefotaxime-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolated in Brazil. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Jul;44(7):1936-42.
133. Sabate M, Tarrago R, Navarro F, Miro E, Verges C, Barbe J, Prats G. 2000 Cloning and sequence of the gene encoding a novel cefotaxime-hydrolyzing beta-lactamase (CTX-M-9) from Escherichia coli in Spain. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Jul;44(7):1970-3.
134. Oliver A, Perez-Diaz JC, Coque TM, Baquero F, Canton R. 2001. Nucleotide sequence and characterization of a novel cefotaxime-hydrolyzing ß-lactamase (CTX-M-10) isolated in Spain. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Feb; 45(2):616-20.
135. Kariuki S, Corkill JE, Revathi G, Musoke R, Hart CA. 2001. Molecular characterization of a novel plasmid-encoded cefotaximase (CTX-M-12) found in clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from Kenya. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Jul; 45(7):2141-3.
136. Chanawong A, M'Zali FH, Heritage J, Xiong JH, Hawkey PM. 2002. Three cefotaximases, CTX-M-9, CTX-M-13, and CTX-M-14, among Enterobacteriaceae in the People's Republic of China. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Mar; 46(3):630-7.
137. Karim A, Poirel L, Nagarajan S, Nordmann P. 2001. Plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (CTX-M-3 like) from India and gene association with insertion sequence ISEcp1. FEMS Microbiol Lett. Jul 24; 201(2):237-41.
138. Bonnet R, Dutour C, Sampaio JL, Chanal C, Sirot D, Labia R, De Champs C, Sirot J. 2001. Novel cefotaximase (CTX-M-16) with increased catalytic efficiency due to substitution Asp-240-->Gly. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Aug;45(8):2269-75.
139. Cao V, Lambert T, Courvalin P. 2002. ColE1-like plasmid pIP843 of Klebsiella pneumoniae encoding extended-spectrum beta-lactamase CTX-M-17. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. May;46(5):1212-7.
140. Poirel L, Naas T, Le Thomas I, Karim A, Bingen E, Nordmann P. 2001. CTX-M-type extended-spectrum ß-lactamase that hydrolyzes ceftazidime through a single amino acid substitution in the omega loop. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Dec;45(12):3355-61.
141. Saladin M, Cao VT, Lambert T, Donay JL, Herrmann JL, Ould-Hocine Z, Verdet C, Delisle F, Philippon A, Arlet G. 2002. Diversity of CTX-M ß-lactamases and their promoter regions from Enterobacteriaceae isolated in three Parisian hospitals. FEMS Microbiol Lett. Apr 9;209(2):161-8.
142. Brenwald NP, Jevons G, Andrews JM, Xiong JH, Hawkey PM, Wise R. 2003. An outbreak of a CTX-M-type ß-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: the importance of using cefpodoxime to detect extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. J Antimicrob Chemother. Jan;51(1):195-6.

SIA | Bibliotecas | Directorio | Archivo | Comunicados | Correo | Calendario | Agenda UN | Contratación | Sistema quejas | Aviso legal

Ciudad Universitaria - Bogotá D.C.- Colombia
Edificio "Uriel Gutiérrez" Transversal 38 N° 40-01 Conmutador (57)(1) 3165000